Factories

In genetics, are classified into a single site in the nucleus of eukaryotic transcription factory, gene transcription unit is active. By allowing extended transcripts own immune labeled nascent RNA labeling and (Br-U, or BR-UTP) precursor engaged polymerase is tagged, these sites can be visualized. Transcription factories may be labeled antibodies against RNA polymerase or detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization. To reflect the 2000 RNA polymerase III plant or ~ 8000 RNA polymerase II holoenzim-factory, located in the nucleoplasm of the cell HeLa cells of the plant to 10,000. Most active transcription units so associated with one polymerase, estimates suggest that containing an average of 8 polymerase holoenzyme plant-polymerase II. As well as transcription of rRNA, the structure is the location of the other activities, but often, the nucleolus is considered to be a factory RNA polymerase I large scale.

Transcription factories

Active transcription units are grouped into kernel at a different site, called euchromatin and transcription factory. By allowing extended transcripts own immune labeled nascent RNA labeling and (Br-U, or BR-UTP) precursor engaged polymerase is tagged, these sites can be visualized. Transcription factories may be labeled antibodies against polymerase or localized by in situ hybridization fluorescence. There is a factory of 10,000 nucleoplasm of cells HeLa cells containing 2,000 polymerase III factories factory ~ 8,000 polymerase II ~. Each plant polymerase II, includes 8-polymerase. Transcription units active to be connected to the polymerase, and each plant, a transcription different units 8 typically between. A line forming a “cloud” around the coefficients, these devices can be connected by promoters and / or enhancers.

There are 8000 RNA polymerase II holoenzim plant-cell nucleoplasm in HeLa cells out there, 100-300 RNAP II nest only in the nucleus of many other types of red blood cells, of the organization. The number of plants in tissue transfer is more than indicated by the estimate of the pre-culture cells are much more limited. Usually, as is associated with a single holoenzim Pol II, transcription active units may comprise a plant medium 8 holoenzyme polymerase II. Co-localization of the gene has been transferred when using the cells of fibroblast-like cultured is not observed. The organization type or location perennial, the number of vacant transcription is limited. Estimates as needing many genes are pursuing the same factory, Share, red blood cells have been shown to express the gene at least 4000.

Position of the nucleus of many genes are associated with the active state. Upon transfer in vivo, the remote active gene is located in the nucleus subcompartments common dynamically, and co-localized in the same plant transfer at high frequencies. There is no movement from and to these plants, leading to the (off) or a decrease in transcription activation (on) through the assembly and mobilization of the transcription complex. Typically, gene to migrate to pre-assembled transcription factory. Expressed gene is located outside the territory chromosome first, but genes closely related is inert therein.

It can be present in the form of two RNAPII: RNAPIIA and CTD which are highly phosphorylated RNAPII0, and unphosphorylated CTD. These positions are not the same, phosphorylation occurs in ser5 of repeat and SER2 mainly. Beginning RNAPII form IIA, extension enzyme form II0: change phosphorus RNAPII proceeds the transcription cycle. RNAPII0 includes a RNAPs and may be different from that burden over phosphorus, and due to the difference SER2 phosphorylation compared phosphorylated and ser5 residue and / or repeated along the CTD the pattern of phosphorylation of the account of the individual in mind, On the other hand. Physically (phosphoCTD of RNAPII0), for example, [16] PCTD is connected to the pre-mRNA processing by a transcription factor that binds to the processing for extending the RNAPII 5 ‘end and 3’ of the ceiling and polyadenylation truncations to. 5 ‘end near Ser5 phosphorylation of the gene activity of the kinase (Ser5PO4) TFIIH; relies essentially on (KIN28 in yeast CDK7 in metazoans). In this way I will move RNAP complex away from the start site and hyperphosphorylate of CTD of RNAP and transcription factor TFIIH kinase. After the action of SER2 residues phosphorylated by (CDK9 kinase in metazoans) CTDK-I TFIIH kinase, in yeast. (CDK9) act will be displayed in the center at the end of the extension Ctk1 addition to the phosphorylation of serine and 5 as this. Cyclin C and CDK8 (CCNC) is a component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzim to phosphorylate the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). To regulate transcription by providing a link between the basal transcription machinery firmly by CDK8, to target the CDK7/cyclin H subunit transcription initiation factor IIH general (TFIIH).

Several members of the BRCA1 protein, are associated genome surveillance complex that is associated with the RNA polymerase II is (BASC), I play the role of transcription.  I am dealing with B transcription factor TFIIH and the start of the DNA repair and transcription. (In the case of “three-in-1”) MAT1 that are involved in the assembly of complex CAK,. CDK7, including the cyclin H and MAT1 (CCNH), CAK is a multi-subunit protein. CAK is an essential component of the transcription factor TFIIH, which is involved in initiation of DNA repair and transcription. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is a mechanism for repairing the damage of DNA. Involved in transcription-coupled NER, ERCC2 is an essential member of the complex BTF2/TFIIH of general transcription factor. ERCC3 is ATP-dependent DNA helicase, which functions in NER. In addition, basic transcription factor 2 because (TFIIH), is a division of class II transcription function. (ERCC5) which forms a stable complex with TFIIH that is active in NER and transcription XPG. ERCC6 encodes a DNA binding protein that is important for transcription-coupled excision repair. Was reacted ERCC8 and P44 (GTF2H2) Cockayne syndrome type B (CSB) protein, a subunit of RNA polymerase and ERCC6 II IIH transcription factor. This was to cut the transcription-coupled repair.