Genetic material, molecules that can be realized as a protein that is assumed by Jacques Monod and François Jacob. Order to develop a process for the synthesis of RNA in the in vitro and polynucleotide phosphorylase is useful to crack the genetic code, Severo Ochoa was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959. Since 1965, RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase, was established in vitro by several laboratories, it indicates the presence of additional factors required RNA synthesized by these enzymes to terminate transcription correctly I had characteristics. 1972, Walter [Fierce became the first person to prove the existence of the enzyme actually end. Roger D. Kornberg, won the 2006 chemistry Nobel Prize. “For his studies of the molecular basis of transcription of eukaryotic”
Important discoveries of many of biology, has emerged from (ribonucleic acid) study of RNA, including creative work in the field of structural biology biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, and molecular evolution . By 2010, scientists of 30, was awarded the experimental work, including the study of RNA, the Nobel Prize. Findings specific high biological significance, are described in this article. For additional information, please see the article on the history of the history of genetics and molecular biology. For more information, please refer to the article and nucleic acid RNA.
When we investigated the early first 1900s, differential chemical and biological between DNA and RNA is a clear, they are isolated, the name of the material from which the initial RNA “is “known as, DNA is” yeast nucleic acid nucleic acid with a pancreas “. “The ribose nucleic” two nucleic acids that contains the name of the common RNA, containing sugars using different diagnostic tests, chemistry, carbohydrate chemistry, indicating that it is. While the DNA is stable, the biochemical studies of other early, that (degeneration), was broken at high pH easily RNA in alkaline has been shown. For example, analysis of nucleoside composition that thymine nucleobases trace components, the number of dimethylguanine and a small amount of shoe dough lysine are included, and the RNA, it contains a nucleotide base, such as DNA uracil in place of this RNA I was shown.
Claims the result RNA that appeared in the late 1950s, leading to the synthesis of protein and thus, the formation of DNA, the concept of RNA is associated with a description of the jack of “central dogma of molecular biology” that. Complex genetic analysis of mutations in the lac operon early 1960s, E. coli, and instead of T4 RII bacteriophage, there is the genetic code and means for determining the nature of the RNA. MRNA of the cell population, short-term nature of the RNA of bacteria with nature very complex biochemical separation of mRNA challenging. Using the reticulocyte in vertebrates to produce a large amount of mRNA that is enriched (major protein bands hemoglobin 2) β globin RNA and encoding α very, this problem is overcome in 1960.
In the 1950s, the results of the experiment, the radioactive amino acid to label the rat liver “microsomes” very quickly after application it is associated with (redefined as ribosomes after) were found, before it will be is a cellular protein that was included widely been shown. The ribozyme, use an electron microscope, the ribonucleoprotein component thereof, biophysical methods capable of generating a (corresponding to hundreds of thousands of gravitational times) the acceleration is very high, ultracentrifugation sedimentation mainly To visualize that it has been identified by analysis. (Moves along the mRNA molecule number of ribosomes) polysomes It has been identified in the early 1960s, their research, generate processively proteins, ribosomal mRNA to the 5 ‘to 3’, as is the case they they do has led to the understanding of how to keep reading in the direction of.
Biochemical experiment painting, shows the radioactive amino acid is being built in a small RNA molecules remain soluble in the large RNA containing the conditions in which the particles to settle rapidly. These molecules will change the transfer RNA (of tRNA) (deer) and later referred to as water-soluble. That there is a set matching enzymes involved in the binding of (III) mRNA, the correct amino acids, subsequent studies, the plurality of specific amino acids, the mRNA species, each associated with (II) (I), each cell anticodon sequence of the tRNA to have has been shown to form a specific interaction with codons decoding mRNA.