Elongation

Elongation is used as a template for RNA synthesis (non-coding strand) or the template strand is one strand of the DNA. Transfer progresses, RNA polymerase intersect the template strand, using the complementary base pairs in the DNA template to create a copy of the RNA. Template strand is possible intersection of the 3 ‘→ 5’ is used as a reference point RNA newly formed and coding (non-template) strand, RNA polymerase is described as a 5 ‘→ 3’ natural transfer it is possible to. 5 ‘→ 3’, thymine (which is replaced with uracil, and includes DNA, this is because one less (deoxyribose except sugars are configured ribose (5 pieces) nucleotide replica of the coding strand oxygen atoms of the phosphate backbone)) – sugar to bring some RNA molecules. RNA polymerase plurality of template DNA on, and can include a bi-mRNA molecules rounds many (some amplification of specific mRNA) transcribed from a single copy of the gene to facilitate mRNA transcribed It can be produced. It is provided with an adjustment mechanism which can replace the bases incorporated elongation be wrong. In eukaryotes, this may correspond to enable editing related R NA factors to bind, to pose short transfer time. Part because of the structure of chromatin and RNA polymerase a good break these be integral

Elongation

Growth rate is a step-by-step addition of amino acids to growing protein chain. The order of the amino acid, I was determined from an array of codons of mRNA in
. Please refer to the “Genetic code expansion process forward in order eEFs is necessary in order to facilitate the expansion factor protein, the cycle (eukaryotic elongation factor) following.:
1. It has been picked up by extension EEF-1 and in the presence of amino group-containing mRNA molecule of GTP (aminoacyl tRNA AA-tRNA is).
2. Complex result of entering the A site empty of peptidyl-tRNA or Met-tRNAi initiator of carrying ribosome.
3. It is matched with mRNA codon ribosome to place at the scene anticodon of the incoming aminoacyl tRNA. It can be arranged in different combinations of translator 64 must be able to select a supported aminoacyl tRNA anticodon the three base codon is matched. In this proof-reading, in order to aminoacyl-tRNA and the anticodon of non-related thrown out from the ribosome, you want to check, and replace the AA-tRNA’s new.
4. By peptide bonds, and is associated with new amino acid at the scene almost immediately after the right aminoacyl-tRNA enters the site of growth peptide P-site. Peptide bond formation catalyzed by the ribosome itself. The reaction was left of peptidyl-tRNA and new ribosomal P-site of the mRNA of the blank in the site.
5. One codon of the mRNA is moved forward in the next step of the ribosome. At the same time, the shift of the mRNA empty, it will be forwarded to the P-site from the field from the P site of the E-site as the mRNA of peptidyl. Process is facilitated by GTP and elongation EEF-2.
6. Located in the rolling after P-site of the peptidyl-tRNA, the next codon of the mRNA is available for reaction with the aminaoacyl-tRNA another site.
7. The ribosome, these reaction steps are repeated until it encounters the frame stop codon. At this point, the transfer is completed.

As stage of regulation, considerable progress has identified this stage and highly dynamic transcription cycle to extend the transcript of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In this section, we discuss the many factors that regulate the elongation phase of transcription. Elongation factor classic that modulate the activity of RNAP II still, we include certain factors that facilitate the expansion of the chromatin template in recent years and more. In addition, we discuss the factors to be associated with RNAP II, but it does not want to regulate their catalytic activity. Extension, has emerged as a process of coordination required multiple stages of maturation and biosynthesis of mRNA.

And complete 12 subunit RNA polymerase that is associated with the product (POL) II transcription bubble, the crystal structure of the RNA template, non-template DNA 7 base pair DNA / RNA hybrid, three in each of the separation of DNA and RNA incoming I discloses the nucleotide of one. Complex accepts posttranslocation state, houses the (NTP) substrate triphosphate co-crystal nucleoside. The binding to the active site of the pores that can interact with DNA-based matrix in the NTP. Residue of NTP around, are reserved and suggest a universal mechanism for inclusion and NTP selection, the RNA polymerase of all cells. DNA-RNA separation circuit and DNA-DNA may be explained by the failure of the duplex Pol II induced. That contributes to the integration of hybrid, to prevent chain recombination, and the share of four protein chains of active center cleft creates the exit tunnel of RNA. Binding of TFIIS elongation aligned RNA of the active center, converting a complex growth to another state where necessary, difficult to blocking.

Regulation of gene expression, is one of research areas most intensively in the whole of science. It is based on the cell type specific gene expression of different multicellular organism. Deregulation of the appropriate pattern of gene expression, a significant effect on the basis of many diseases of cell function. There are gene expression, and many cellular processes that control the most direct regulation during transfer. Transcription of the gene encoding the protein in eukaryotes is performed by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Until recently, most studies aimed to reveal the molecular mechanism of transcriptional control is focused on the early stages including creating (see below) to the start set of (before) the transcription start like this. Over the years, transcription elongation is considered as a trivial addition of ribonucleoside triphosphates into mRNA chain growth. This, it is a regulatory step highly dynamic and transcription cycle that can this process to adjust the downstream event is immediately obvious. Many factors that targeting the elongation phase of transcription in particular has been confirmed. Importantly, multiple steps, is modulated by the interaction transcription elongation complex of RNAP II with (TEC) including exports for pre-mRNA splicing ceiling, 3′-end processing, and supervision, and mature mRNA.