Guide RNA

Other kinetoplastids and trypanosomes protist “is RNA editing” have the correct process of mitochondrial RNA new post-transcriptional called. It consists in 10-20,000 minicircles, “cryptogenes” to a gene in the mitochondrial genome in these cells, encodes a 20-50 maxicircles encode gRNAs (which is part and gRNAs). These molecules all have lead to a huge network of DNA found at the base of the Hairline to the internal compartment of mitochondria.  Most of the maxicircle transcripts, you may frame shift of a large number of series is not translated into protein due. Frame shift of which is corrected after you create an open reading frame is translated into a mitochondrial protein homologous to the mitochondrial proteins from other cells, and transferred via the insertions and deletions of uridine residues in the appropriate location. Mediated by (gRNAs) encoded short guide RNA to edit the information in the form of an additional sequence of insertions and deletions (GC base pairs GU and that is, can). It is transcribed from both minicircles and maxicircles of gRNAs.

One comprising the sequence information to correct an error in the genome of other new presence of the two genomes in mitochondria. Editing is done typically the 3 ‘to 5’ of the mRNA. editing events early when forming a duplex with a complementary RNA sequence immediately after the editing site of the mRNA will occur gRNA. Then, to extend the double by it, the control number ribonucleoprotein complex and removing correct insertion of dial uridine residue. After editing the changes in the same way, the higher adjacent. gRNA encodes the information of multiple sites for the wording to produce (edit of “block”) normal editing, the two heavy chain of full gRNA / mRNA.

In the case of a double chain of “pan-editing” mRNA, to develop, then, gRNA duplex another is formed in the mRNA sequence editing, you can start another round of editing. The gene specific form of editing, you can edit the area of ​​multiple “domain” is overlapping gRNAs. The degree of editing each gene was between trypanosomes species. Perhaps the. Succeeding in the loss of editing by loss of encoding minicircle class sequence specific gRNAs on the side of “three, model is proposed to explain a part, difference of some of edit evolutionary In the case, was seen in the old laboratory strains. loss have been lost completely, but in most cases, be fatal. loss of editing, the long history of evolution of protists of these ancient The exact nature of the means selective advantage to maintain by editing is still unclear.

The reason for using this complex mechanism for the production of trypanosomatids mRNA is unknown. It is a ancestor of trypanosomatids an ancestor of early protist mitochondrial kintoplastid ancestor, there is a possibility that with the presence origin as bodonids while you can branch euglenoids from a common ancestor same as kinetoplastids, present in. In Leishmania parasites tarentolae, 12 of the 18 mitochondrial genes, and edit it using this process. Such genes, is CYB. mRNA is edited by two consecutive actually. The first change, the sequence of the corresponding mRNA is

As with humans and other animals in the water and soil environment, including the number of parasites responsibility of severe disease in different shapes, Kinetoplastids group of flagella of unicellular, protozoan. They are members of the gate Euglenozoa, its main feature is the presence of DNA containing the granules in the mitochondria within a single associated with the base of the flagellum kinetoplast of cells. It was defined by Honigberg in 1961 as the first order of whip Kinetoplastida of kinetoplastids. I suspect is divided into personality of trypanosomes of Tanque and Bodonidae biflagellate traditionally, they would paraphyletic to the latter. One family of kinetoplastids trypanosomatids, it is worth noting for the parasitic exclusively, genus contains several. Bodo is a typical family of Kinetoplastida, including the free-living species common various feed on bacteria. Parasite Leishmania and Cryptobia is included other.

Kinetoplastids can be parasitic or free-living. It is a remarkable order trypanosomatida genus of many parasitic exclusively so are included. With more complex than a single host or proceeds through several stages of differentiation in one host 2, Trypanosomatids, you can have a simple life cycle. Dramatic morphological change is possible between the phase of the life cycle. The diseases caused by members of the order trypanosomatida, Chagas disease and sleeping sickness caused by leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma species caused by Leishmania species is included.