Retrotransposon

Retrotransposon is a genetic element that can be amplified (also known as transposons via RNA intermediates) in the genome, is a ubiquitous component of the DNA in eukaryotic many. They are a subset of the transposon. If you are a major component of nuclear DNA often, they, they are particularly rich in the plant. In corn, 78% is composed of retrotransposons from 49 genome. About 90% of wheat, of the genome is composed of repetitive sequences, 68% of transposable elements. In mammals, (~ 48%, 45%) is configured with debris of transposon or transposon almost half of the genome. 42% of the human genome consists of retrotransposons, DNA transposons is about 2-3%.

Retrotransposon

For retrotransposon “duplicate input mode, you can increase the size of the genome using an RNA intermediate to increase the copy number of elements rapidly. Similarly DNA transfer factor (transposon class II), the retrotransposon array of. insertion site within the gene or two that can cause mutations by insertion near the replication machinery, because they are maintained transposed since, further, mutations induced by retrotransposon, relatively stable . retrotransposons are is performed by reverse transcriptase encoding a retrotransposon second step of forming a. DNA to go back to the DNA, to copy the RNA is itself subsequently integrated back to its potential genomic transpose and survival retrotransposon. host genome to a can, between the host and retrotransposons and a retrotransposon and host could be regulated by both retrotransposons factors hosted coded Top insertion mutation results and to understand how to have evolved a mechanism for adjusting the characteristics of transposition “host and retrotransposons. genome to avoid the harmful effect on the relationship that existed millions of years to In order to optimize the viability of the other, it is still in its infancy. Retrotransposon most will not be able to retrotranspose longer by mutations that are very old, stored.

LTR retrotransposons are, have, a direct LTR’s in the range of 5 kilobytes of size more than 100 bp of ~. Retrotransposon LTR is group based on both the order of the gene product to classify (Metaviridae) such as TY3-Gypsy In addition, (Pseudoviridae) as TY1-copier, and encoded degree of sequence similarity of their are as Pao-BEL-. TY3-gypsy group retrotransposon and TY1-copier, are found in (to several million copies at the maximum haploid nuclei) copy number of the genome of the plant animals, fungi, and protists are often in general. The Pao-BEL like elements found in animals previously. About 8% of the human genome, and approximately 10% of the mouse genome is composed of transposon LTR.

It is a group of genetic elements present in large amounts in the genome long dispersive element eukaryotes. They are transmitted to the RNA using RNA polymerase II promoter, which is disposed inside the line. Line endonuclease (ribonuclease H, for example) is also the number of lines of code and code, for the reverse transcriptase. It has a high specificity for the RNA from the line other RNA, reverse transcriptase performs the DNA copy of the RNA it may be incorporated into the genome of the new site. Code endonuclease can be a type (restriction endonuclease as) AP type or REL (apurinic / pyrimidine) by non-LTR retroposon. R2 group of elements has a type REL endonuclease indicating the insertion of site specificity.

‘The UTR, promoter sequence contains three’ UTR containing Polytail 5 and polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and. Itself is moved to the copy (of moved by the cut-and-paste mechanism, as is the case class II transposon such instead) (Sines and LTR retrotransposon transposon, of electrons. Classes I and other) the line They expand the genome. For example, the human genome contains about 500 lines 000 in about 17% of the genome. Of these, 7000 are a small part of overall length, retrotransposition is possible. Be associated Interestingly, retroposons of LINE-1 genome particular is actively transcribed it recently, essential to create chromatin local environment and closely nucleosome associated with LINE-1 RNA has been shown .

RNA molecules, 5S ribosomal RNA, and short scattering element is a short DNA sequence that represents a small nuclear RNA of other transcribed reverse transcription by RNA polymerase III of the mRNA of the first. Encodes the reverse transcriptase of functional protein, Sines is not dependent on the elements of the mobile phone other for transposition. Sines most common of primates is called aluminum sequence. Does not include a code sequence is approximately 350 base pairs, with a restriction enzyme, alloying elements, can be recognized by AluI (name). Sines comprises about 11 percent of the human genome about 1.5 million copies. It is believed that “junk DNA” Historically, a recent study in order to develop new features, in some rare cases, cine lines and two, it is incorporated into the new gene I shows. Distribution of these elements, have been implicated in cancer and hereditary disease specific. Sequence analysis of Alu subfamily in humans, shows a (recombinant) component Mosaic However, experimental evidence is lacking. The frequent exchange of a sequence of retrotransposition in eukaryotes Entamoeba histolytica primitive, has been reported, this leads to a mosaic pattern of the SINE sequence.