DNA is a process of determining the exact order of nucleotides of the DNA molecule. It comprises any method or technology that is used to determine the order bases adenine four, guanine, cytosine, the DNA strand and thymine. Emergence of a rapid method for DNA sequencing to accelerate the discovery and medical research and biological significantly. Knowledge of the DNA sequence, has become essential as well as the biological basic research in many fields of application, such as a system biological such diagnosis, biotechnology, and forensic biology. Rapid speed of achievement Thing, sequencing of the genome in the form of life and many species, including the complete DNA sequences of other microbial species animal, and plant and a lot of human genome or DNA sequence, complete with DNA modern technology We have been committed to.
An example of the results of chain automated in DNA sequencing. First DNA sequence is prepared in the early 1970s by researchers using methods labor-intensive on the basis of two-dimensional chromatography. After the development of sequencing method of fluorescence-based automatic analysis, DNA is easy and fast throughout. (I.e., a set of genes or operon) the individual genes, large area genetics, DNA may be used to determine the sequence of the entire genome or chromosome complete. Depending on the method used, the sequence may be provided the sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA isolated from a source of virtually any other of genetic information animal cells, plant, bacteria or archaea, . Furthermore, the sequence obtained is used by medical personnel to make decisions about the support or the treatment of genetic counseling, or may be used by researchers in the field of genetics and molecular biology for the Advancement of Science it may be.
Structure of DNA was established as a double helix in 1953, decades will pass the piece of DNA that can be analyzed for sequence in the laboratory to ensure. RNA sequence is one in the form of the initial sequencing. It is identified (Ghent, Belgium) at Ghent University in 1976 from MS2, 1972 complete genome phage and complete the first gene, the main attraction of RNA sequences, is available at his colleagues Walter and Fierce.
Remarkable advances in several DNA have been made in 1970. It developed rapidly, in 1977 DNA sequencing method MRC Centre, Cambridge, UK and Frederick Sanger, announced the method of “DNA array chaining and stop inhibitor”. The Allan Maxam and Walter is Gilbert Harvard University, including those for “DNA sequencing by chemical degradation”, we have developed a method for sequencing. In 1973, Maxam and Gilbert wandering, reported the sequence of 24 base pairs by using a method known as spot analysis. It proceeds in a sequence is assisted by the simultaneous development of recombinant DNA technology which can be isolated from a source other than the viral DNA.
Complete DNA genome was the first ordered was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977. Complete DNA sequence of Barr virus, was found to be long 170 000 base pairs – 1984 Epstein scientists decipher Medical Research Council. Smith and Food Research Institute of Leroy E. California Institute of Technology has announced the semi-automatic sequencing of the DNA of the first in 1986. By 1990 that followed 370,1987 years machine sequence that is fully automated market Applied Biosystems “firsts, ABI, U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Mycoplasma capricolum, Escherichia coli, nematodes this, (Caenorhabditis elegans) at the same time as the price Saccharomyces cerevisiae of U.S. $ 0.75 at the base of (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is to be referred to as expressed sequence tags, Craig Venter, the sequence of the cDNA sequence of the human of the human genome and out, has begun a large-scale sequencing test in 1995. Venter, which began in the laboratory of an attempt to capture the coding part, Hamilton Smith and colleagues announced organism free, the complete genome of the first of bacteria flu bacterial genome Institute (TIGR).
This eliminates the need for a commitment to mapping the first to publish that in the journal Science and 1,830,137 base , which contains chromosome circular was used first publication of the whole genome shotgun sequence. Until 2001, the shotgun sequencing method, I’ve used in the production of draft sequence of the human genome. Some new methods for DNA sequencing, was developed in the mid-late 1990s. It contains the first law of sequencing “next generation”, the technology of these. In 1996, student Mostafa Ronaghi and his PAL Nyren exposes their way of pyrosequencing at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Laurent Farine Li patent and Pascal Meyer a year later, was presented by the World Intellectual Property Organization has described the DNA sequencing colony. In 2000, it was published, is sold ‘This method MPSS. Or massively parallel signature sequence “, the treatment of Lynx is, DNA sequencer not included sequencing technology parallelized, adapter ligation-mediated, bead-based , have been sold to laboratories that are independent, but acts as a method sequence “next generation” of commercially available first. in 2004, 454 life sciences market parallelized version of pyrosequencing. In the first version of the machine of their own, to sequence decrease the cost of six times compared to Sanger sequencing, which is automated, MPSS after, is the second of a new generation of sequencing technology. The large amount of data that is generated by the DNA In addition, Brent Ewing of the University of Washington. Phil Green development of new programs and methods for sequence analysis is required to have described them PHRED quality score of sequencer data analysis in 1998.