Methods in development
DNA methods currently in development, such as transmission electron microscopy or atomic force microscope is used to determine the position of the nucleotide long DNA fragments and such read sequence as a transit DNA strand with a labeling Nanopor the DNA polymerase The nucleotide labeled with heavy elements and recording visual detection comprising microscopic techniques. By improving the throughput and eliminates the need for processing power utilization of the DNA polymerase and excess reagents, third generation technology is aimed at reducing costs and lead times.
To determine the order the building blocks of DNA in the gene encoding the individual called DNA (nucleotides), Genetics learning proceeds, it is one of the methods used for testing of genetic diseases. A new technology that allows rapid sequencing of DNA mass have been developed. Sequence original technology is called breakthrough consisting of (named after the development scientist game, the Frederick Sanger) Sanger sequencing, and help scientists to determine the genetic code of humans, but this is time-consuming and it is expensive is. Sanger method, which is automated in order to more quickly, with short work laboratory sequence DNA, are still in use today, (also known as the human genome) man years which the DNA of all in order take. While reducing development costs more recently (for example, several weeks, a few days, for sequencing of the human genome) several techniques are called (sequencing or next-generation) to accelerate generation sequencing process are.
The next sequence, it is possible to DNA sequences large amount of current, for example, it is all part of the DNA of the individual to provide a procedure for the preparation of the protein. These pieces called exons are considered to constitute one percent of the human genome. Together, all exons of the genome is known, exome sequence method is known as exome sequencing in its entirety. In this method, in order to identify genes also are a few selected Rather, it allows the variation of the protein coding region of any gene. Mutations most known cause disease because occurs in exon exome entire sequence is considered to be an effective method for the identification of possible pathogenic mutations.
However, exon outer DNA mutants, researchers have discovered that it is possible to influence leads to deformation of the complete or genetic disease, an abbreviated sequence exome, the activity of production genes and proteins. Another method, called the whole genome sequence, can determine the order of the total nucleotides in the DNA of an individual will be determined by each variation of the genome. Genetic changes of many rather than identified by whole-genome sequencing and whole exome, you can choose the gene sequences, but the significance of much of this information is unknown. Since there is no genetic changes all health, determining mutants identified whether is contained in the state of interest is difficult. And is associated with genetic diseases various identification examples are not yet been diagnosed occasionally. As well as being used in clinical, exome whole, the total genome sequence method is valuable for researchers. Continuing with the study of the genome and exome, it may help to determine whether genetic variation new associated with the health state help diagnose disease in the future.
A first method for DNA sequencing have been developed in the mid 1970s. At that point, it is possible to base pairs of an array or only some years, researchers not enough for all of the sequence of a single gene much less of the entire human genome. The HGP, by the time it began in 1990, only a few laboratories were able to make a 100 000 house only a sequence, the cost of sequencing is still very high. Since then, to reduce the cost to the point where it can be increased and automation technology improvement, the speed, individual genes are sequenced daily basis, several laboratories, the bases of more than 100 million per year You may order.
Beginning in the late 1990s, the scientific community, witnessed the culmination of significant achievements related to DNA sequencing. Is created in the genome of the important model organisms, including some (Rattus norvegicus) mouse now (Mus musculus), rat, (D. pseudoobscura and Drosophila melanogaster) of two fruits, two in addition to history Thing of the genomic sequence of human (C. briggsae and (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematode) nematode One, the (intestinal and C Ciona intestinalis savignyi) fungi some other, malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), 2 Hoya and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), (Anopheles) mosquito that carries the malaria parasite that causes; (including rice) list mustard grass long (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice, and micro-organisms, some plants. Work of the sequence is in progress bee (honeybee), or just the beginning, when you start immediately chimpanzee (chimpanzee), bovine (cow), the dog (Canis familiaris) chicken (Gallus gallus) This is expected. It becomes genetic simplicity relative, and terrain ideal for technology development in the future of those many of these model organisms.