Genetic engineering

GE called genetic modification, is manipulating the genome of an organism using biotechnology directly. (. Has been done for centuries indirect genetic modification by artificial selection) using the method of molecular cloning in order to isolate the first new DNA, to produce a copy DNA sequence of the genetic material and other After inserting the structure into a host organism with a DNA can be inserted into the host genome, or by synthesizing Te. Removal of the gene, or may be “removed” using a nuclease. Gene targeting various techniques that can be used to remove add that by using homologous recombination to modify the endogenous gene, gene, or to introduce point mutations, removal exons of the gene.  I considered genetically modified organisms and is (of GMO) organisms produced by genetic engineering.

Genetic engineering

First GMO bacteria is 1973, mice modified, occurred in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria are commercialized in 1982, genetically modified foods, have been sold since 1994. GM first sold in the United States in December, 2003 Glofish, is designed as a pet for the first time.  Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in many fields, including pharmaceutical research, agriculture and industrial biotechnology. Enzymes for use in detergents, and drugs such as human growth hormone and insulin, commercialized genetically modified crops and genetically modified animals, such as zebra and mouse to be used for research purposes, such as gene testing GM cell line be produced by the modified cells are.

Introduction of DNA or genetic elimination, the genetic material, the host, using the in vitro preparation technique in cells that are hybridized to the host or fusion or after direct, genetic engineering, please change the genetic makeup of an organism. Direct microinjection, followed by the macro-injection encapsulation techniques and micro, or via a vector system or indirectly, by inclusion of this material, which is set to form a new combination of genetic genetic material I include the use of technology (RNA or DNA) recombinant nucleic acid.

In general, genetic engineering does not include cell fusion techniques that do not use genetically modified organisms or recombinant nucleic acid in a process induced breeding of animals and plants traditional, in vitro fertilization, of ploidy, and induction. It is not considered to be genetically modified, but However, the European Commission, is closely related to, and including other means of stem cell research and artificial selection.Cloning and selective breeding, genetic engineering, and genetic engineering in general It is defined there, but it is possible to use them. By introducing the genetic material that is artificially synthesized from the raw material in the body, the genetic engineering, synthetic biology is a new field one step further.  When it is added to the host genetic material from other species, organisms obtained is called transgene.

Genetic engineering

Organism is obtained when it is possible to grow with the host course, the genetic material of the seed or the same type is used to create a knockout body, cisgenic.Genetic technology for removing the genetic material of the target organism It is known to be able to be used for. Can apply the regulatory system of methods.The Canada conventional in the United States, while in Europe, the genetically modified, based on regardless of the particular product, whether they have of its origin, a new feature, of genetic engineering are synonymous. In other words, the product is defined while performing trait that is not found in type that is produced by using conventional methods of genetic engineering or breeding, as having been genetically modified. In the scientific community, in general, transgenic, as is preferred, in particular, the term genetic engineering is not used.

The phenol method, – it has been developed for the purification of DNA from organisms of chloroform extraction, etc., may be operated restriction digests and such as PCR, in vitro. Intensive use of biochemistry and modern biology of these techniques in recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is a human DNA sequence that has been compiled by other DNA sequences. These can be converted into other organisms to a format suitable to the use of viral vectors, or in the form of a plasmid. It can be used for the production of recombinant proteins grown in agriculture, or used to produce the clinical genetically.

Plants modified by genetic engineering, microbial or animal is called a genetically modified crops or genetically modified organisms,. Bacteria were the first that is genetically modified. It can be inserted into bacterial cells plasmid DNA containing the new gene, the bacteria will express such genes. These genes, environmental pollution edible vaccine that can process other substrates.Plants that have been modified to protect pharmaceuticals and enzymes, food, from insects, resistance to herbicides, which encodes for resistance to virus I increased resistance to and production, feeding. The commercialization of genetically modified crops most, are resistant to herbicide tolerant crops insects. Study animals are genetically modified, was used for the model for the production of pharmaceutical products animals and agriculture. They function to separate proteins in their milk animal with a drop of a gene having increased susceptibility to disease, and hormone for further growth is included.