It is a long polymer composed of repeating units called DNA, and nucleotides. DNA properties are identified by the double helix structure of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson and the first Friedrich Mischa over, DNA was isolated. The 34 angstroms and around the same axis (3.4 nm) The structure of DNA of all species, including 2 spiral chain is wound at a pitch of 10 Å radius of (1.0 nm). According to another study, when measured with a special solution, DNA strand measured (2.2 ~ 2.6 nm) 22-26 angstroms wide, nucleotide units one was measured (0.33 nm) 3.3 long. Repeating unit of the individual is very small, but the DNA polymer, containing nucleotide of several million, can be very large molecules. For example, DNA Properties human chromosome largest chromosome number 1, is composed of approximately 220 million pairsand in 85 mm base.
The organisms, DNA does not exist as a molecule having a pair of molecules that are held tightly together in general. Long filaments of these two intertwined like grapes in the form of a double helix. It includes both segments of the backbone of the molecule that is reacted with DNA Properties of other chains in helical chains and nucleotides repeated together, holding the nucleobase. Sugar to nucleic acid base related, are referred to as link-based to phosphate groups and one or more sugar and nucleoside, which is called a nucleotide. Polymers comprising multiple nucleotides linked means (such as DNA) a polynucleotide.
Backbone of the DNA strand is formed alternately phosphate moieties and sugar. It is deoxyribose, 2 – sugar is a pentose (five carbon) sugar in DNA. Sugars are linked by a phosphate group to form a phosphodiester bond between the carbon atoms of the third and fifth of the sugar adjacent ring. Binding asymmetric These have direction represents a chain of DNA. Direction of nucleotides in one strand is opposite to the direction of their own in the other strand in the double helix: are anti-parallel strands. Asymmetric end of the DNA strand are called (3 prime) 5 ‘and 3 (5 chairs)’ end to end and 3 ‘phosphate group at the end last 5’ terminal hydroxyl group. One major difference between DNA and RNA, DNA 2 sugar that is substituted with an alternative pentose sugar ribose in RNA – is deoxyribose.
Part of DNA. The foundation, I lie in between the strands of horizontal spiral of two. Hydrogen bonding of base stacking interactions between the aromatic nucleic acid bases between the nucleotide: DNA Properties double helix is stabilized by two factors mainly. The aqueous environment of the cell, a housing, to minimize the interaction dissolution and the Gibbs free energy for the conjugated π bond nucleobases aligns perpendicular to the axis of the DNA molecule. Guanine (G) and the four bases found in DNA are adenine and (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), thymine (T). As shown in the adenosine monophosphate, four bases, these are attached to the sugar / phosphate to form a complete nucleotide.
DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of man-made structures for nucleic acid applications of technology. In the art, and not as a non-living materials for engineering nanotechnology nucleic acid is used as a carrier of genetic information in living cells. This use is enabled by the strict rules of the nucleic acid base pairs causing only a portion of the strand and the base sequence complementary to bind together to form a double helix structure of strong, solid. This allows the rational design of base sequence to be combined to form a composite structure comprising a control target nano features precisely selectively. It is a material dominant using DNA but the structure comprising a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and nucleic acids, like other RNA such, the further use of the nucleic acid sequence name for explaining the field of nanotechnology lead, it is built.
Conceptual basis for DNA nanotechnology is imposed by Nadrian Seaman in the early 1980s to the first, in the field, I have begun to attract widespread interest in mid-2000. Researchers have developed a static structure of both functional structures, such as DNA computing and molecular machines and such shape, any three-dimensional lattice and two such dimensions, nanotubes, and polyhedron. Several ways to connect, of these structures including the structure of the tile-based collected by the structure using a strand displacement techniques substructures, and DNA properties origami method, folding by using dynamically reconfigurable architecture it is used for the production. In order to determine the structure of the protein, the field, so as to be used by including in applications in crystallography and spectroscopy, a tool for science, structural biology and to address critical issues in Biophysics was. It is also considering the possibility of application of nano-medicine and molecular scale electronics.
In many cases, nanotechnology, has been defined as the science of materials and devices with features on a scale of 100 nanometers or less. In particular, nanotechnology DNA can bottoms were organized structure stable particular shape of these structures caused by physical or chemical properties of the component that is selected from spontaneous DNA designers.In nanocomposite molecular component This is an example of self-molecule devices up. Double helix nucleic acid to have a diameter of length helical repeats of 3.5 nm 2nm ~, is a strand of nucleic acids such as DNA properties, which is suitable for the nanostructures. An important characteristic to make a useful nucleic acid in building the structure of other materials, depending on simple rules in base pairs is well understood, the connection between nucleic acid strands of the two assembly of the nucleic acid structure needs to be controlled by the design nucleic acid to form a specific structure in the coupling is performed. This feature, not present in the other materials used in nanotechnology, including a protein that can not design a protein is very difficult, nanoparticles special unit itself.
Structure of a nucleic acid molecule comprising a sequence of nucleotides which is characterized by containing the nucleic acid base. The DNA, the adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine base four is (T). Nucleic acid, if complementary to each other the two sequences have a characteristic two molecules bind to each other, and form a double strand, which the G and C T are coupled they simply and means having a sequence corresponding base pair. For formation of a suitable matching base pairs is a nucleic acid strand energetically favorable, be interconnected to a structure to increase the number of base pairs correctly is expected in most cases. By determining the pattern of binding, the overall structure of the method can be controlled easily nucleotide sequence, the system of the fiber. In DNA nanotechnology, pairing interactions underlying cause threads reasonable nucleotide sequence of the strand to collect the desired structure, and is designed by researchers.