RNA synthesis is catalyzed normal enzyme RNA polymerase using DNA as a template, by a process known as transcription. Start of transcription initiation by the binding of the enzyme to (located in the “upstream” of a gene usually) promoter sequence in the DNA. Double helix of DNA is unwound from the helicase activity of the enzyme. Then is advanced by the template circuit 3 ‘to 5’ direction, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA molecules greater elongation occurs in the 5 ‘to 3’ direction. I dictates the DNA sequence the end of RNA synthesis occurs. RNA is modified by the enzyme after transfer often. For example, 5 ‘cap and poly (A) tail was added to the pre-mRNA, are removed from the spliceosome eukaryotic intron. There are a number of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using the RNA of their matrix for the synthesis of a new strand of RNA. For example, the number of RNA viruses (e.g., poliovirus) can use this type of enzyme to replicate their genetic material. Moreover, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is part of the RNA interference pathway in many organisms.


I will act as an intermediate between proteins and DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). Transcript which is processed by the mRNA portion of DNA is “transferred” to the (single-stranded RNA molecule). In prokaryotes, usually, does not need to be processed, recorded, may function as mRNA immediately. Transcription can be initiated at a particular site on the DNA called the promoter. Operon or each gene has its own promoter (s). Transcription is terminated at the end of the DNA sequence. Recording is usually from 50.000 nucleotides 300, the information for a protein is included. Before it can act as a model protein (nuclear and, in fact, biological cells and including a high body) and transcripts must be treated generally eukaryotes it. Treatment includes the removal of intervening sequences (introns) of the gene. The length of the intron may be anywhere between 50 to 10,000 nucleotides. coding region of the mRNA are called exons. There may be up to 100 in the intron of a single gene. Is a splice of (consisting of protein and RNA) small ribonucleoprotein particles seem to pull the ends of the intron together intron. However, there without the need for protein is the splicing intron: It looks RNA sequence itself, to contain enough information to where splicing intron to know. In addition to poly (A) sequence, the removal of introns, was added to the 3 ‘end of the recording. mRNA transcripts are processed, and the information of mRNA may be used to “transfer” to the protein sequence identified. But, usually, mRNA rare in intron and prokaryotes is not processed before translation.

There is a possibility that the alternative splicing of specific consultation occurs. Without increasing the size of the genome of an organism in intron splicing process, it is possible to increase the available amount of genetic information. Alternatively, introns, and means that can be identified in various ways in different molecules of the same primary transcript, resulting in binding is that lead to and thus mRNA different proteins single gene are different. This process, please be aware that the intron is limited to eukaryotic organisms such as is rare in prokaryotes mainly.

Ribosome: The (rRNAs), ribosomal RNA is an important component of an important part of the machinery of protein synthesis. In addition to the rRNA of a protein of about 70 kinds exist in ribosome. Thus there is a several hundred people a copy of the rRNA gene in the genome to produce rRNA of possible many. There is each rRNAs four different, of different sizes. One molecule of each of the four types of rRNA is included in each ribosome. In prokaryotes, the ribosome binds to the mRNA close to the translation start site. The ribosome binding site is the ribosome recognition element or Shine in sequence. As long as they fit into the appropriate start codon within, in eukaryotes, the ribosome binds to the 5 ‘end of the scan of the mRNA mRNA and they.

Protein synthesized by extending a chain transfer RNA in amino acid residue (tRNA is), ribosomes This amino acid is used as information for the mRNA amino acids should be placed in “that knows” next having the amino acid of the ribozyme to allow. It has information and a tRNA specific will recognize amino acids for each type of amino acid, and conveys it with protein markers that are synthesized for protein, so as to require mRNA.

TRNA of all, have the same general shape, appearance, and clover-like. Some portion of the molecule is folded back to the character line is held in the form of nucleotide binding between different regions of the molecule. There are two parts of the mRNA is particularly important: anticodon and aminoacyl binding site. Amino acid is where bound to molecules mR NA in aminoacyl binding site. Specifically, mRNA species of each, specifically binds to only one type of amino acid. the base pairs of the mRNA codon with the appropriate mRNA in the ribosome complex anticodon mRNA is, (3 sites). It binds to mRNA of the mRNA that allows the amino acid sequence carried by the mRNA that is to be incorporated into a polypeptide in place temporarily. Thus, the sequence on the mRNA codons (3 bases) directs the amino acid to be introduced into the protein at specific sites. Called genetic code to “dictionary” of codons encoding an amino acid.