Genes and genomes
There firmly genomic DNA is filled in a process called DNA condensation for placing the available cells a small amount of properly. In eukaryotes, cell nuclei, and are located in a small amount of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA. In prokaryotes, DNA is carried within the irregular shape of the body in the cytoplasm called nucleoid. Genomes are held by a gene of the genetic information in the genome, a complete set of this information in the living body is called its genotype. Genes are genetic units, which is a region of DNA that affect particular characteristics of the body. Open reading frame gene is transferable, and I include regulatory sequences, such as promoters and enhancers that control the transcription of the open reading frame like this.
In many species, a small part of the entire sequence of the genome encodes a protein. For example, it is composed of exons, encoding a protein having more than 50% of human DNA that about 1.5 percent of the human genome consisting of non-coding repetitive sequences. Difference of extraordinary genome size and eukaryotic genome between species, or raison d’etre of non-coding DNA of many, however represent puzzle for many years known as “. The mystery of the C value” very C-value still, DNA sequences some that do not encode proteins, can be used to encode a functional non-coding RNA molecules involved in regulation of gene expression.
T7 RNA polymerase in the preparation of mRNA from the DNA template (blue) (green).
Non-coding DNA sequences of several plays a structural role in the chromosome. Several genes have typically contains centromere and telomeres, but it is important for the stability and function of chromosomes. It is false, the copy of the gene is inactivated by mutation in the form of large DNA to non-coding human. They can serve as raw genetic material to create a new gene through the process of divergence sometimes gene duplication, but these sequences are fossil molecules normally.
Generally, growth of the organism, development, reproduction, cell or cell division is dependent on the process is divided into daughter cells identical two. This requires a copy of all genes in the genome in a process called DNA replication of the first. Copies made by specific enzymes known as DNA polymerases is to “read” the one strand of synthesis of new complementary strand DNA, and are known as double-stranded template strand. Because they are held together by base-pairing of the sequence of the circuit of double helix DNA, to give copies full fidelity, as read by the enzyme, one circuit determines its complementary sequence. Is semi-conservative, ie it is inherited by each daughter cell, a copy of the genome, the process of DNA replication, contains a chain that is synthesized one new and one source of DNA.
After DNA replication is completed, should be separated into two copies of the genome physically cells are divided into membrane-bound cells in two separate. Bacteria and archaea – In prokaryotes, this is usually bound to the cell membrane, the two films made by a relatively simple process called binary fission of the circular genome are separated into daughter cells, such as entering film Recessed It can be divided into components of the cytoplasm of bound. Binary fission is compared with the rate of cell division of eukaryotic very fast. Separation processes and departments chromosome cytoplasm known eukaryotic cell division, or as a phase S while Occurs M during the period, during this phase the cell cycle, the cycle, a complex process known as DNA replication, is. In unicellular eukaryotes such as yeast, the portion of the asymmetric cytoplasmic to two daughter cells, resulting in many reproduction by budding is common.
Transmission of genetic material from one generation of cells to the next replication and is the basis of the link between molecular imaging and classic gene and molecular genetics,. Because the copy of the gene in the cells of the parents is included in the progeny cells, organisms, inherit the characteristics of the parents. To reproduce the asexual organism, offspring is a clone or genetic copy of the parent organism. The organisms of sexual reproduction, is a special form of cell division called meiosis, cells called germ cells, which are haploid spouse or child or is generated, contains only one copy of each gene. Gametes produced by the female is called the ova or eggs, which are produced by men, is called sperm. A single cell with gametes two fuses, each with one copy from the father and the copy number of two times the gene from the mother again to form the embryo.
During the process of meiotic cell division, the event called control or transgenic above, the length of the DNA of one can occur in the chromatid length exchange of DNA in sister chromatid respective sometimes there. Allele in staining are the same, but there is no effect if the result of the re-set is to link the allele otherwise vary them. The Mendelian principle of state assortment of independent, which is sorted independently inherited allele gametes for trait 1, it is because of the characteristics of different organisms are two genes of each parent for the characteristics of each It is linked to the alleles inherited. Do the same chromosome, which is actually true genes that are not located far from each other on the same chromosome. To a larger extent, the two genes are close to the side on the same chromosome, they are and will be included in the gametes, in many cases, they are very similar in nature does not have to be separated as it was very The intersection will be displayed as gene you have, it is unlikely is going to take place between them. This is known as genetic background.